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Economic status Can do considerable damage to vegetables, pastures, grainfields, and haystacks; a prize game mammal for meat and trophies; formerly ranged over much of continent, now restricted.

For the safety of the animals the bulls had their antlers removed prior to transporting them to Tennessee and mature bulls were transported apart from the rest of the animals.

For each release approximately 75% of the elk were cows and 25% were bulls.

What was the cause of the demise of the elk population in Tennessee?

meadows (in summer), foothills, pains, and valleys. Usually seen in groups of 25 or more; both sexes together in winter, old bulls in separate groups during summer. Migrates up mountains in spring, down in fall; males shed antlers Feb.– March; velvet shed in Aug. Calf has high-pitched squeal when in danger; cow has similar squeal, also sharp bark when traveling with herd; males have high-pitched bugling call that starts with a low note and ends with a few low-toned grunts, heard during rutting season, especially at night. Apparently established on Afognak I., Alaska (not on map). The last historical record of an elk being sighted in Tennessee was in 1865 when one was reported to be killed in Obion County.

All elk brought into Tennessee for release go through strict disease testing prior to release.

This testing is much more thorough than that required for bringing captive elk into Tennessee.

Why remove elk that wander out of the restoration zone?

Elk have the potential to cause crop and property damage if they occur in areas that have large amounts of row crops and/or have large numbers of people.

May be seen commonly in following national parks: Grand Teton, Yellowstone, Olympic, Glacier, Rocky Mt., Banff, and Jasper; also other places where they have been introduced. How long has it been since elk roamed wild in the state of Tennessee?

Young Born May-June; normally 1, rarely 2; gestation period about 8 1/2 months. There have been numerous attempts to reestablish them, some successful, others not.

In western areas elk are very mobile mostly in response to availability of suitable habitat which may be influenced by weather conditions.